Gray’s Anatomy: Angiology (Fig. 448 - 622)

Table of Contents

Angiology Plates

Angiology Captions

  • Figure 448 - Transverse section through a small artery and vein of the mucous membrane of the epiglottis of a child. Artery, showing the nucleated endothelium, e, which lines it; the vessel being contracted, the endothelial cells appear very thick. Underneath the endothelium is the wavy elastic lamina. The chief part of the wall of the vessel is occupied by the circular muscle coat m; the rod-shaped nuclei of the muscle cells are well seen. Outside this is a, part of the adventitia. This is composed of bundles of connective tissue fibers, shown in section, with the nuclei of the connective tissue corpuscles. The adventitia gradually merges into the surrounding connective tissue. V. Vein showing a thin endothelial membrane, e, raised accidentally from the intima, which on account of its delicacy is seen as a mere line on the media m. This latter is composed of a few circular unstriped muscle cells a. The adventitia, similar in structure to that of an artery.
  • Figure 449 - Small artery and vein, pia mater of sheep. Surface view above the interrupted line; longitudinal section below. Artery in red; vein in blue,
  • Figure 450 - Section of a medium-sized artery.
  • Figure 451 - Capillaries from the mesentery of a guinea-pig, after treatment with solution of nitrate of silver. a. Cells. b. Their nuclei.
  • Figure 452 - Section of a medium-sized vein.
  • Figure 453 - Human red blood corpuscles. Highly magnified. a. Seen from the surface. b. Seen in profile and forming rouleaux. c. Rendered spherical by water. d. Rendered crenate by salt solution.
  • Figure 454 - Varieties of leucocytes found in human blood. Highly magnified.
  • Figure 455 - Human colorles blood corpuscle, showing its successive changes of outline within ten minutes when kept moist on a warm stage.
  • Figure 456 - Blood platelets. Highly magnified.
  • Figure 457 - Transverse section through the region of the heart in a rabbit embryo of nine days. j, j. Jugular veins. ao. Aorta. ph. Pharynx. som. Somatopleure. bl. Proamnion. ect. Ectoderm. ent. Entoderm. p. Pericardium. spl. Splanchnopleure. ah. Outer wall of heart. ih. Endothelial lining of heart. é. Septum between heart tubes.
  • Figure 458 - Diagram of the vascular channels in a human embryo of the second week. The red lines are the dorsal aortæ continued into the umbilical arteries. The red dotted lines are the ventral aortæ, and the blue dotted lines the vitelline veins.
  • Figure 459 - Human embryo of about fourteen days, with yolk-sac.
  • Figure 460 - Head of chick embryo of about thirty-eight hours’ incubation, viewed from the ventral surface.
  • Figure 461 - Diagram to illustrate the simple tubular condition of the heart.
  • Figure 462 - Heart of human embryo of about fourteen days.
  • Figure 463 - Heart of human embryo of about fifteen days.
  • Figure 464 - Dorsal surface of heart of human embryo of thirty-five days.
  • Figure 465 - Interior of dorsal half of heart from a human embryo of about thirty days.
  • Figure 466 - Heart showing expansion of the atria.
  • Figure 467 - Interior of dorsal half of heart of human embryo of about thirty-five days.
  • Figure 468 - Same heart as in Fig. 467, opened on right side.
  • Figure 469 - Diagrams to illustrate the transformation of the bulbus cordis. Truncus arteriosus. Au. Atrium. B. Bulbus cordis. RV. Right ventricle. LV. Left ventricle. P. Pulmonary artery.
  • Figure 470 - Diagrams to show the development of the septum of the aortic bulb and of the ventricles.
  • Figure 471 - Transverse sections through the aortic bulb to show the growth of the aortic septum. The lowest section is on the left, the highest on the right of the figure.
  • Figure 472 - Profile view of a human embryo estimated at twenty or twenty-one days old.
  • Figure 473 - Scheme of the aortic arches and their destination.
  • Figure 474 - Diagram showing the origins of the main branches of the carotid arteries.
  • Figure 475 - The liver and the veins in connection with it, of a human embryo, twenty-four or twenty-five days old, as seen from the ventral surface.
  • Figure 476 - Human embryo with heart and anterior body-wall removed to show the sinus venosus and its tributaries.
  • Figure 477 - Scheme of arrangement of parietal veins.
  • Figure 478 - Scheme showing early stages of development of the inferior vena cava.
  • Figure 479 - Diagram showing development of main cross branches between jugulars and between cardinals.
  • Figure 480 - Diagram showing completion of development of the parietal veins.
  • Figure 481 - 4 mm.
  • Figure 482 - 14 mm.
  • Figure 483 - 18 mm.
  • Figure 484 - 21 mm.
  • Figure 485 - 35 mm.
  • Figure 486 - 50 mm. crown-rump length.
  • Figure 487 - 80 mm. crown-rump length.
  • Figure 488 - Profile drawings of the dural veins showing principal stages in their development in human embryos from 4 mm. to birth. It is of particular interest to notice their adaptation to the growth and changes in the form of the central nervous system. Fig. 481, 4 mm.; Fig. 482, 14 mm.; Fig. 483, 18 mm.; Fig. 484, 21 mm.; Fig. 485, 35 mm.; Fig. 486, 50 mm. crown-rump length; Fig. 487, 80 mm. crown-rump length; Fig. 488, adult.
  • Figure 489 - Posterior wall of the pericardial sac, showing the lines of reflection of the serous pericardium on the great vessels.
  • Figure 490 - Front view of heart and lungs.
  • Figure 491 - Base and diaphragmatic surface of heart.
  • Figure 492 - Sternocostal surface of heart.
  • Figure 493 - Interior of right side of heart.
  • Figure 494 - Heart seen from above.
  • Figure 495 - Base of ventricles exposed by removal of the atria.
  • Figure 496 - Interior of left side of heart.
  • Figure 497 - Aorta laid open to show the semilunar valves.
  • Figure 498 - Section of the heart showing the ventricular septum.
  • Figure 499 - Anastomosing muscular fibers of the heart seen in a longitudinal section. On the right the limits of the separate cells with their nuclei are exhibited somewhat diagrammatically.
  • Figure 500 - Purkinje’s fibers from the sheep’s heart. A. In longitudinal section. B. In transverse section.
  • Figure 501 - Schematic representation of the atrioventricular bundle of His. The bundle, represented in red originates near the orifice of the coronary sinus, undergoes slight enlargement to form a node, passes forward to the ventricular septum, and divides into two limbs. The ultimate distribution cannot be completely shown in this diagram.
  • Figure 502 - Plan of the fetal circulation. In this plan the figured arrows represent the kind of blood, as well as the direction which it takes in the vessles. Thus—arterial blood is figured >—>; venous blood, >—>; mixed blood, >—>.
  • Figure 503 - Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery.
  • Figure 504 - Pulmonary vessels, seen in a dorsal view of the heart and lungs. The lungs have been pulled away from the median line, and a part of the right lung has been cut away to display the air-ducts and bloodvessels.
  • Figure 505 - The arch of the aorta, and its branches.
  • Figure 506 - Plan of the branches.
  • Figure 507 - Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries.
  • Figure 508 - The arteries of the face and scalp. 98
  • Figure 509 - The labial coronary arteries, the glands of the lips, and the nerves of the right side seen from the posterior surface after removal of the mucous membrane.
  • Figure 510 - Plan of branches of internal maxillary artery.
  • Figure 511 - Plan of branches of internal maxillary artery.
  • Figure 512 - The triangles of the neck.
  • Figure 513 - The internal carotid and vertebral arteries. Right side.
  • Figure 514 - The ophthalmic artery and its branches.
  • Figure 515 - Bloodvessels of the eyelids, front view. 1, supraorbital artery and vein; 2, nasal artery; 3, angular artery, the terminal branch of 4, the facial artery; 5, suborbital artery; 6, anterior branch of the superficial temporal artery; 6’, malar branch of the transverse artery of the face; 7, lacrimal artery; 8, superior palpebral artery with 8’, its external arch; 9, anastomoses of the superior palpebral with the superficial temporal and lacrimal; 10, inferior palpebral artery; 11, facial vein; 12, angular vein; 13, branch of the superficial temporal vein.
  • Figure 516 - The arteries of the base of the brain. The tempora pole of the cerebrum and a portion of the cerebellar hemisphere have been removed on the right side.
  • Figure 517 - Outer surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries.
  • Figure 518 - Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere, showing areas supplied by cerebral arteries.
  • Figure 519 - Diagram of the arterial circulation at the base of the brain. L. Antero-lateral. A.M. Antero-medial. P.L. Postero-lateral. P.M. Posteromedial ganglionic branches.
  • Figure 520 - Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries.
  • Figure 521 - The scapular and circumflex arteries.
  • Figure 522 - The internal mammary artery and its branches.
  • Figure 523 - The axillary artery and its branches.
  • Figure 524 - The scapular and circumflex arteries.
  • Figure 525 - The brachial artery.
  • Figure 526 - Diagram of the anastomosis around the elbow-joint.
  • Figure 527 - The radial and ulnar arteries.
  • Figure 528 - Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view.
  • Figure 529 - Arteries of the back of the forearm and hand.
  • Figure 530 - The thoracic aorta, viewed from the left side.
  • Figure 531 - The abdominal aorta and its branches.
  • Figure 532 - The celiac artery and its branches; the liver has been raised, and the lesser omentum and anterior layer of the greater omentum removed.
  • Figure 533 - The celiac artery and its branches; the stomach has been raised and the peritoneum removed.
  • Figure 534 - The superior mesenteric artery and its branches.
  • Figure 535 - Loop of small intestine showing distribution of intestinal arteries. The vessels were injected while the gut was in situ; the gut was then removed, and an x-ray photograph taken.
  • Figure 536 - Arteries of cecum and vermiform process.
  • Figure 537 - The inferior mesenteric artery and its branches.
  • Figure 538 - Sigmoid colon and rectum, showing distribution of branches of inferior mesenteric artery and their anastomoses. Prepared in same manner as Fig. 535.
  • Figure 539 - The arteries of the pelvis.
  • Figure 540 - The arteries of the internal organs of generation of the female, seen from behind.
  • Figure 541 - Variations in origin and course of obturator artery.
  • Figure 542 - The superficial branches of the internal pudendal artery.
  • Figure 543 - The deeper branches of the internal pudendal artery.
  • Figure 544 - The arteries of the gluteal and posterior femoral regions.
  • Figure 545 - Femoral sheath laid open to show its three compartments.
  • Figure 546 - Structures passing behind the inguinal ligament.
  • Figure 547 - The relations of the femoral and abdominal inguinal rings, seen from within the abdomen. Right side.
  • Figure 548 - Scheme of the femoral artery.
  • Figure 549 - The left femoral triangle.
  • Figure 550 - The femoral artery.
  • Figure 551 - The popliteal, posterior tibial, and peroneal arteries.
  • Figure 552 - Circumpatellar anastomosis.
  • Figure 553 - Anterior tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries.
  • Figure 554 - The plantar arteries. Superficial view.
  • Figure 555 - The plantar arteries. Deep view.
  • Figure 556 - Base and diaphragmatic surface of heart.
  • Figure 557 - Veins of the head and neck.
  • Figure 558 - The veins of the neck, viewed from in front.
  • Figure 559 - Veins of the tongue. The hypoglossal nerve has been displaced downward in this preparation.
  • Figure 560 - The veins of the thyroid gland.
  • Figure 561 - Diagram showing common arrangement of thyroid veins.
  • Figure 562 - The fascia and middle thyroid veins. The veins here designated the inferior thyroid are called by Kocher the thyroidea ima.
  • Figure 563 - The vertebral vein.
  • Figure 564 - Veins of the diploë as displayed by the removal of the outer table of the skull.
  • Figure 565 - Velum interpositum.
  • Figure 566 - Superior sagittal sinus laid open after remova of the skull cap. The chordæ Willisii are clearly seen. The venous lacunæ are also well shown; from two of them probes are passed into the superior sagittal sinus.
  • Figure 567 - Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right half of the skull, and the brain.
  • Figure 568 - Sagittal section of the skull, showing the sinuses of the dura.
  • Figure 569 - Tentorium cerebelli from above.
  • Figure 570 - The sinuses at the base of the skull.
  • Figure 571 - Oblique section through the cavernous sinus.
  • Figure 572 - Veins of orbit.
  • Figure 573 - The veins on the dorsum of the hand.
  • Figure 574 - The superficial veins of the upper extremity.
  • Figure 575 - The deep veins of the upper extremity.
  • Figure 576 - The veins of the right axilla, viewed from in front.
  • Figure 577 - The venæ cavæ and azygos veins, with their tributaries.
  • Figure 578 - Transverse section of a thoracic vertebra, showing the vertebral venous plexuses.
  • Figure 579 - Median sagittal section of two thoracic vertebræ, showing the vertebral venous plexuses.
  • Figure 580 - The great saphenous vein and its tributaries at the fossa ovalis.
  • Figure 581 - The great saphenous vein and its tributaries.
  • Figure 582 - The small saphenous vein.
  • Figure 583 - The popliteal vein.
  • Figure 584 - The femoral vein and its tributaries.
  • Figure 585 - The veins of the right half of the male pelvis. .
  • Figure 586 - The iliac veins.
  • Figure 587 - Scheme of the anastomosis of the veins of the rectum.
  • Figure 588 - The penis in transverse section, showing the bloodvessels.
  • Figure 589 - Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view.
  • Figure 590 - Spermatic veins.
  • Figure 591 - The portal vein and its tributaries.
  • Figure 592 - Scheme showing relative positions of primary lymph sacs based on the description given by Florence Sabin.
  • Figure 593 - Lymph capillaries of the human conjunctiva: a, conjunctiva corneæ; b, conjunctiva scleroticæ.
  • Figure 594 - Lymph capillaries from the human scrotum, showing also transition from capillaries to the collecting vessels a, a.
  • Figure 595 - Lymph capillaries of the cutis from the inner border of the sole of the human foot. a, a, outer layer; b, b, inner layer.
  • Figure 596 - Vertical section through human tongue; a, a, blind lymph capillaries in the filiform papillæ with the underlying lymphatic plexus.
  • Figure 597 - Section of small lymph gland of rabbit.
  • Figure 598 - Lymph gland tissue. Highly magnified. a, Trabeculæ. b. Small artery in substance of same. c. Lymph paths. d. Lymph corpuscles. e. Capillary plexus.
  • Figure 599 - The thoracic and right lymphatic ducts.
  • Figure 600 - Modes of origin of thoracic duct. Thoracic duct. a’. Cisterna chyli. b, c’ Efferent trunks from lateral aortic glands. d. An efferent vessel which pierces the left crus of the diaphragm. e. f. Lateral aortic glands. h. Retroaortic glands. i. Intestinal trunk. j. Descending branch from intercostal lymphatics.
  • Figure 601 - Terminal collecting trunks of right side. a. Jugular trunk. b. Subclavian trunk. c. Bronchomediastinal trunk. d. Right lymphatic trunk. e. Gland of internal mammary chain. f. Gland of deep cervical chain.
  • Figure 602 - Superficial lymph glands and lymphatic vessels of head and neck.
  • Figure 603 - Lymphatics of pharynx.
  • Figure 604 - The lymphatics of the face.
  • Figure 605 - Lymphatics of the tongue.
  • Figure 606 - The superficial lymph glands and lymphatic vessels of the upper extremity.
  • Figure 607 - Lymphatics of the mamma, and the axillary glands .
  • Figure 608 - Lymphatic vessels of the dorsal surface of the hand.
  • Figure 609 - Lymph glands of popliteal fossa.
  • Figure 610 - The superficial lymph glands and lymphatic vessels of the lower extremity.
  • Figure 611 - The parietal lymph glands of the pelvis.
  • Figure 612 - Iliopelvic glands.
  • Figure 613 - Lymphatics of stomach, etc.
  • Figure 614 - Lymphatics of stomach, etc. The stomach has been turned upward.
  • Figure 615 - The lymphatics of cecum and vermiform process from the front.
  • Figure 616 - The lymphatics of cecum and vermiform process from behind.
  • Figure 617 - Lymphatics of colon.
  • Figure 618 - Lymphatics of the bladder.
  • Figure 619 - Lymphatics of the prostate.
  • Figure 620 - Lymphatics of the uterus.
  • Figure 621 - Deep lymph nodes and vessels of the thorax and abdomen . Afferent vessels are represented by continuous lines, and efferent and internodular vessels by dotted lines.
  • Figure 622 - The tracheobronchial lymph glands.

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