Gray’s Anatomy: Osteology (Fig. 72 - 291)

Table of Contents

Osteology Plates

Osteology Captions

  • Figure 72 - Human bone marrow. Highly magnified.
  • Figure 73 - Transverse section of compact tissue bone.
  • Figure 74 - Section parallel to the surface from the body of the femur. a, Haversian canals; b, lacunæ seen from the side; c, others seen from the surface in lamellæ, which are cut horizontally.
  • Figure 75 - Perforating fibers, human parietal bone, decalcified. a, perforating fibers in situ; b, fibres drawn out of their sockets; c, sockets.
  • Figure 76 - Nucleated bone cells and their processes, contained in the bone lacunæ and their canaliculi respectively. From a section through the vertebra of an adult mouse.
  • Figure 77 - Transverse section of body of human fibula, decalcified.
  • Figure 78 - Part of the growing edge of the developing parietal bone of a fetal cat.
  • Figure 79 - Section of fetal bone of cat. ir. Irruption of the subperiosteal tissue. p. Fibrous layer of the periosteum. o. Layer of osteoblasts. im. Subperiosteal bony deposit.
  • Figure 80 - Part of a longitudinal section of the developing femur of a rabbit. a. Flattened cartilage cells. b. Enlarged cartilage cells. c, d. Newly formed bone. e. Osteoblasts. f. Giant cells or osteoclasts. g, h. Shrunken cartilage cells.
  • Figure 81 - Osteoblasts and osteoclasts on trabecula of lower jaw of calf embryo.
  • Figure 82 - A typical thoracic vertebra, viewed from above.
  • Figure 83 - Sagittal section of a lumbar vertebra.
  • Figure 84 - A cervical vertebra.
  • Figure 85 - Side view of a typical cervical vertebra.
  • Figure 86 - First cervical vertebra, or atlas.
  • Figure 87 - Second cervical vertebra, or epistropheus, from above.
  • Figure 88 - Second cervical vertebra, epistropheus, or axis, from the side.
  • Figure 89 - Seventh cervical vertebra.
  • Figure 90 - A thoracic vertebra.
  • Figure 91 - Peculiar thoracic vertebræ.
  • Figure 92 - A lumbar vertebra seen from the side.
  • Figure 93 - A lumbar vertebra from above and behind.
  • Figure 94 - Fifth lumbar vertebra, from above.
  • Figure 95 - Sacrum, pelvic surface.
  • Figure 96 - Sacrum, dorsal surface.
  • Figure 97 - Lateral surfaces of sacrum and coccyx.
  • Figure 98 - Base of sacrum.
  • Figure 99 - Median sagittal section of the sacrum.
  • Figure 100 - Coccyx.
  • Figure 101 - Ossification of a vertebra
  • Figure 102 - No caption.
  • Figure 103 - No caption.
  • Figure 104 - Atlas.
  • Figure 105 - Axis.
  • Figure 106 - Lumbar vertebra.
  • Figure 107 - No caption.
  • Figure 108 - No caption.
  • Figure 109 - Ossification of the sacrum.
  • Figure 110 - Base of young sacrum.
  • Figure 111 - Lateral view of the vertebral column.
  • Figure 112 - The thorax from in front.
  • Figure 113 - The thorax from behind.
  • Figure 114 - The thorax from the right.
  • Figure 115 - Anterior surface of sternum and costa cartilages.
  • Figure 116 - Posterior surface of sternum.
  • Figure 117 - Lateral border of sternum.
  • Figure 118 - Ossification of the sternum.
  • Figure 119 - No caption.
  • Figure 120 - Peculiarities.
  • Figure 121 - No caption.
  • Figure 122 - A central rib of the left side. Inferior aspect.
  • Figure 123 - A central rib of the left side, viewed from behind.
  • Figure 124 - Peculiar ribs.
  • Figure 125 - Peculiar ribs.
  • Figure 126 - Peculiar ribs.
  • Figure 127 - Peculiar ribs.
  • Figure 128 - Peculiar ribs.
  • Figure 129 - Occipital bone. Outer surface.
  • Figure 130 - Occipita bone. Inner surface.
  • Figure 131 - Occipital bone at birth.
  • Figure 132 - Left parietal bone. Outer surface.
  • Figure 133 - Left parietal bone. Inner surface.
  • Figure 134 - Frontal bone. Outer surface.
  • Figure 135 - Frontal bone. Inner surface.
  • Figure 136 - Frontal bone at birth.
  • Figure 137 - Left temporal bone. Outer surface.
  • Figure 138 - Left temporal bone. Inner surface.
  • Figure 139 - Coronal section of right temporal bone.
  • Figure 140 - Diagrammatic view of the fundus of the right internal acoustic meatus. Crista falciformis. 2. Area facialis, with (2’) internal opening of the facial canal. 3. Ridge separating the area facialis from the area cribrosa superior. 4. Area cribrosa superior, with (4’) openings for nerve filaments. 5. Anterior inferior cribriform area, with (5’) the tractus spiralis foraminosus, and (5’’) the canalis centralis of the cochlea. 6. Ridge separating the tractus spiralis foraminosus from the area cribrosa media. 7. Area cribrosa media, with (7’) orifices for nerves to saccule. 8. Foramen singulare.
  • Figure 141 - Left temporal bone. Inferior surface.
  • Figure 142 - The three principal parts of the tempora bone at birth. 1. Outer surface of petromastoid part. 2. Outer surface of tympanic ring. Inner surface of squama.
  • Figure 143 - Temporal bone at birth. Outer aspect.
  • Figure 144 - Temporal bone at birth. Inner aspect.
  • Figure 145 - Sphenoid bone. Upper surface.
  • Figure 146 - Sphenoid bone. Anterior and inferior surfaces.
  • Figure 147 - Sphenoid bone. Upper and posterior surfaces.
  • Figure 148 - Sphenoid bone at birth. Posterior aspect.
  • Figure 149 - Ethmoid bone from above.
  • Figure 150 - Perpendicular plate of ethmoid. Shown by removing the right labyrinth.
  • Figure 151 - Ethmoid bone from behind.
  • Figure 152 - Ethmoid bone from the right side.
  • Figure 153 - Lateral wall of nasal cavity, showing ethmoid bone in position.
  • Figure 154 - Articulation of nasal and lacrimal bones with maxilla.
  • Figure 155 - Right nasal bone. Outer surface.
  • Figure 156 - Right nasal bone. Inner surface.
  • Figure 157 - Left maxilla. Outer surface.
  • Figure 158 - Left maxilla. Nasal surface.
  • Figure 159 - Left maxillary sinus opened from the exterior.
  • Figure 160 - The bony palate and alveolar arch.
  • Figure 161 - Anterior surface of maxilla at birth.
  • Figure 162 - Inferior surface of maxilla at birth.
  • Figure 163 - Left lacrimal bone. Orbital surface.
  • Figure 164 - Left zygomatic bone in situ.
  • Figure 165 - Left zygomatic bone. Malar surface.
  • Figure 166 - Left zygomatic bone. Temporal surface.
  • Figure 167 - Articulation of left palatine bone with maxilla.
  • Figure 168 - Left palatine bone. Nasal aspect.
  • Figure 169 - Left palatine bone. Posterior aspect.
  • Figure 170 - Lateral wall of right nasal cavity showing inferior concha in situ.
  • Figure 171 - Right inferior nasal concha. Medial surface.
  • Figure 172 - Right inferior nasal concha. Lateral surface.
  • Figure 173 - Median wall of left nasal cavity showing vomer in situ.
  • Figure 174 - The vomer.
  • Figure 175 - Vomer of infant.
  • Figure 176 - Mandible. Outer surface. Side view.
  • Figure 177 - Mandible. Inner surface. Side view.
  • Figure 178 - Mandible of human embryo 24 mm. long. Outer aspect.
  • Figure 179 - Mandible of human embryo 24 mm. long. Inner aspect.
  • Figure 180 - Mandible of human embryo 95 mm. long. Outer aspect. Nuclei of cartilage stippled.
  • Figure 181 - Mandible of human embryo 95 mm. long. Inner aspect. Nuclei of cartilage stippled.
  • Figure 182 - At birth.
  • Figure 183 - In childhood.
  • Figure 184 - In the adult.
  • Figure 185 - In old age. Side view of the mandible at different periods of life.
  • Figure 186 - Hyoid bone. Anterior surface.
  • Figure 187 - Base of skull. Inferior surface.
  • Figure 188 - Side view of the skull.
  • Figure 189 - Left infratemporal fossa.
  • Figure 190 - The skull from the front.
  • Figure 191 - Horizontal section of nasal and orbital cavities.
  • Figure 192 - Medial wall of left orbit.
  • Figure 193 - Base of the skull. Upper surface.
  • Figure 194 - Sagittal section of skull.
  • Figure 195 - Medial wall of left nasal fossa.
  • Figure 196 - Roof, floor, and lateral wall of left nasal cavity.
  • Figure 197 - Skull at birth, showing frontal and occipital fonticuli.
  • Figure 198 - Skull at birth, showing sphenoidal and mastoid fonticuli.
  • Figure 199 - The premaxilla and its sutures.
  • Figure 200 - Left clavicle. Superior surface.
  • Figure 201 - Left clavicle. Inferior surface.
  • Figure 202 - Left scapula. Costal surface.
  • Figure 203 - Left scapula. Dorsal surface.
  • Figure 204 - Posterior view of the thorax and shoulder girdle.
  • Figure 205 - Left scapula. Lateral view.
  • Figure 206 - Plan of ossification of the scapula. From seven centers.
  • Figure 207 - Left humerus. Anterior view.
  • Figure 208 - Left humerus. Posterior view.
  • Figure 209 - Longitudinal section of head of left humerus.
  • Figure 210 - Plan of ossification of the humerus.
  • Figure 211 - Epiphysial lines of humerus in a young adult. Anterior aspect. The lines of attachment of the articular capsules are in blue.
  • Figure 212 - Upper extremity of left ulna. Lateral aspect.
  • Figure 213 - Bones of left forearm. Anterior aspect.
  • Figure 214 - Bones of left forearm. Posterior aspect.
  • Figure 215 - Plan of ossification of the ulna. From three centers.
  • Figure 216 - Epiphysial lines of ulna in a young adult. Lateral aspect. The lines of attachment of the articular capsules are in blue.
  • Figure 217 - Plan of ossification of the radius. From three centers.
  • Figure 218 - Epiphysial lines of radius in a young adult. Anterior aspect. The line of attachment of the articular capsule of the wrist-joint is in blue.
  • Figure 219 - Bones of the left hand. Volar surface.
  • Figure 220 - Bones of the left hand. Dorsal surface.
  • Figure 221 - The left navicular bone.
  • Figure 222 - The left lunate bone.
  • Figure 223 - The left triangular bone.
  • Figure 224 - The left pisiform bone.
  • Figure 225 - The left greater multangular bone.
  • Figure 226 - The left lesser multangular bone.
  • Figure 227 - The left capitate bone.
  • Figure 228 - The left hamate bone.
  • Figure 229 - The first metacarpal.
  • Figure 230 - The second metacarpal.
  • Figure 231 - The third metacarpal.
  • Figure 232 - The fourth metacarpal.
  • Figure 233 - The fifth metacarpal.
  • Figure 234 - Plan of ossification of the hand.
  • Figure 235 - Right hip bone. External surface.
  • Figure 236 - Right hip bone. Internal surface.
  • Figure 237 - Plan of ossification of the hip bone. The three primary centers unite through a Y-shaped piece about puberty. Epiphyses appear about puberty, and unite about twenty-fifth year.
  • Figure 238 - Diameters of superior aperture of lesser pelvis .
  • Figure 239 - Diameters of inferior aperture of lesser pelvis .
  • Figure 240 - Median sagittal section of pelvis.
  • Figure 241 - Male pelvis.
  • Figure 242 - Female pelvis.
  • Figure 243 - Upper extremity of right femur viewed from behind and above.
  • Figure 244 - Right femur. Anterior surface.
  • Figure 245 - Right femur. Posterior surface.
  • Figure 246 - Lower extremity of right femur viewed from below.
  • Figure 247 - Frontal longitudinal midsection of upper femur.
  • Figure 248 - Diagram of the lines of stress in the upper femur, based upon the mathematical analysis of the right femur. These result from the combination of the different kinds of stresses at each point in the femur.
  • Figure 249 - Frontal longitudinal midsection of left femur. Taken from the same subject as the one that was analyzed and shown in Figs. 248 and 250. 4/9 of natural size.
  • Figure 250 - Diagram of the computed lines of maximum stress in the normal femur. The section numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, etc., show the positions of the transverse sections analyzed. The amounts of the maximum tensile and compressive stress at the various sections are given for a load of 100 pounds on the femur-head. For the standing position these stresses are multiplied by 0.6, for walking by 1.6 and for running by 3.2.
  • Figure 251 - Intensity of the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the upper femur. Computed for the load of 100 pounds on the right femur. Corresponds to the upper part of Fig. 250.
  • Figure 252 - Plan of ossification of the femur. From five centers.
  • Figure 253 - Epiphysial lines of femur in a young adult. Anterior aspect. The lines of attachment of the articular capsules are in blue.
  • Figure 254 - Epiphysial lines of femur in a young adult. Posterior aspect. The lines of attachment of the articular capsules are in blue.
  • Figure 255 - Right patella. Anterior surface.
  • Figure 256 - Right patella. Posterior surface.
  • Figure 257 - Upper surface of right tibia.
  • Figure 258 - Bones of the right leg. Anterior surface.
  • Figure 259 - Bones of the right leg. Posterior surface.
  • Figure 260 - Plan of ossification of the tibia. From three centers.
  • Figure 261 - Epiphysial lines of tibia and fibula in a young adult. Anterior aspect.
  • Figure 262 - Lower extremity of right fibula. Medial aspect.
  • Figure 263 - Plan of ossification of the fibula. From three centers.
  • Figure 264 - Left calcaneus, superior surface.
  • Figure 265 - Left calcaneus, inferior surface.
  • Figure 266 - Left calcaneus, lateral surface.
  • Figure 267 - Left calcaneus, medial surface.
  • Figure 268 - Bones of the right foot. Dorsal surface.
  • Figure 269 - Bones of the right foot. Plantar surface.
  • Figure 270 - Left talus, from above.
  • Figure 271 - Left talus, from below.
  • Figure 272 - Left talus, medial surface.
  • Figure 273 - Left talus, lateral surface.
  • Figure 274 - The left cuboid. Antero-medial view.
  • Figure 275 - The left cuboid. Postero-lateral view.
  • Figure 276 - The left navicular. Antero-lateral view.
  • Figure 277 - The left navicular. Postero-medial view.
  • Figure 278 - The left first cuneiform. Antero-medial view.
  • Figure 279 - The left first cuneiform. Postero-lateral view.
  • Figure 280 - The left second cuneiform. Antero-medial view.
  • Figure 281 - The left second cuneiform. Postero-lateral view.
  • Figure 282 - The left third cuneiform. Postero-medial view.
  • Figure 283 - The third left cuneiform. Antero-lateral view.
  • Figure 284 - The first metatarsal.
  • Figure 285 - The second metatarsal.
  • Figure 286 - The third metatarsal.
  • Figure 287 - The fourth metatarsal.
  • Figure 288 - The fifth metatarsal.
  • Figure 289 - Plan of ossification of the foot.
  • Figure 290 - Skeleton of foot. Medial aspect.
  • Figure 291 - Skeleton of foot. Lateral aspect.

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